top of page

Books by Gerald Pollack

The Fourth Phase of Water

Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor


This award-winning book provides evidence for a fourth phase of water. This phase occurs mainly next to water-loving (hydrophilic) surfaces. It is surprisingly extensive, projecting out from the surface by up to millions of molecular layers.

Of significance is the observation that this fourth phase is charged; and, the water just beyond is oppositely charged, creating a battery that can produce electrical current. Light charges this battery. Thus, water can receive and process energy drawn from the environment in much the same way as plants. Absorbed light energy can then be exploited for performing work, including electrical and mechanical work, as well as the work of proteins inside cells.

Published by Ebner and Sons, 2013.

view on

This title has been translated to the following languages: Czech, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish (coming soon)

Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life

A New, Unifying Approach to Cell Function


This highly praised book emphasizes the role of cell water and the gel-like nature of the cell, building on these features to explore the mechanisms of communication, transport, contraction, division, and other essential cell functions. 

Published by Ebner and Sons, 2001.

view on

This title has been translated to Korean and Spanish.

Muscles & Molecules

Uncovering the Principles of Biological Motion

An award-winning book that topples the widely accepted edifice of understanding on how muscles contract, replacing it with a simpler construct that better fits the evidence.

Published by Ebner and Sons, 1990.

view on

Collaborative Books

Collaborative Books

Phase Transitions in Cell Biology

Gerald Pollack and Wei-Chun Chin

Phase transitions occur throughout nature. The most familiar example is the one that occurs in water – the abrupt, discontinuous transition from a liquid to a gas or a solid, induced by a subtle environmental change. Practically magical, the ever-so-slight shift of temperature or pressure can induce an astonishing transition from one entity to another entity that bears little resemblance to the first.

Published by Springer, 2008.

view on

Water and the Cell

Gerald Pollack, Ivan Cameron, Denys Wheatley


This book deals with the role of water in cell function. Long recognized to be central to cell function, water’s role has not received the attention lately that it deserves. This book brings the role of water front and central. It presents the most recent work of the leading authorities on the subject, culminating in a series of sometimes astonishing observations.

Published by Springer, 2006.

view on

Elastic Filaments of the Cell

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Henk Granzier and Gerald Pollack

Elastic filaments refer mainly to titin, the largest of all known proteins. Titin was discovered initially in muscle cells, where it interconnects the thick filament with the Z-line. Titin forms a molecular spring that is responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of contracting muscle, ensuring efficient muscle contraction. More recently, it has become clear that titin is not restricted to muscle cells alone.

Plenum Press, 2000

view on

Mechanism of Work Production and Work Absorption in Muscle

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Haruo Sugi and Gerald Pollack

In the concluding remarks in this volume, Dr. Hugh E. Huxley, a principal architect of the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction, states that the molecular mechanism of myofilament sliding remains mysterious to all of us. We hope that this volume will stimulate muscle investigators to design and perform novel experiments to clarify the mysteries in muscle contraction.

Plenum Press, 1998

view on

Mechanism of Myofilament Sliding in Muscle Contraction

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Haruo Sugi and Gerald Pollack

Proceedings of the symposium on [title], held at Hakone, Japan in November 1991. In between the introductory lecture on muscle contraction and the summary and conclusion (both by A.F. Huxley) are primary sections devoted to the structural basis of myofilament sliding; regulatory mechanisms of contra  [update needed!]

Plenum Press, 1993

view on


Essays by Gerald Pollack

Writing Guidlines GHP.jpg
Recent Papers

Recent Papers (Since 2000, selected from >300 papers)

Wang, A. and Pollack, GH: Effect of infrared radiation on interfacial water at hydrophilic surfaces. Colloid and Interface Science Communications 42 (2021) 100397

Kowacz, M. and Pollack, GH: Propolis-induced exclusion of colloids: Possible new mechanism of biological action. Colloid and Interface Science Communications 38 (2020) 100307.

Kowacz, M. and Pollack, GH Cells in New Light: Ion Concentration, Voltage, and Pressure Gradients across a Hydrogel Membrane. ACS Omega 2020, 5, 33, 21024–21031

Li, Z. and Pollack, GH: Surface-induced flow: A natural microscopic engine using infrared energy as fuel. Science Advances  6(19) 2020: eaba0941  DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aba0941

Sharma, A and Pollack, GH: Healthy Fats and Exclusion-Zone Size. Food Chemistry, 316,126305, 2020.

Kowacz, M., Pollack, GH: Moving Water Droplets: The Role of Atmospheric CO2 and Incident Radiant Energy in Charge Separation at the Air−Water Interface. J. Phys. Chem B. 2019. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b09161

Ye, T., Kowacz, M. Pollack, GH: Unexpected Effects of Incident Radiant Energy on Evaporation of Water Condensate. in press, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2019.

Pedregal-Cortes, R., Toriz, G., Delgado, E. and Pollack, GH: Interfacial water and its potential role in the function of sericin against biofouling. Biofouling  DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2019.1653863. 2019.

Pollack, GH. The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life, and Health, in Nutrition and Integrative Medicine. ed. Aruna Bakhru CRC Press, 2019, pp 439 - 448, 2019.

Sharma A, et al., Abha Sharma, Colby Adams, Benjamin D. Cashdollar, Zheng Li, Nam V. Nguyen, Himasri Sai, Jiachun Shi, Gautham Velchuru, Kevin Z. Zhu, and Gerald H. Pollack  Effect of Health-Promoting Agents on Exclusion-Zone Size. Dose-Response  DOI: 10.1177/1559325818796937, 2018.

Rad, I and Pollack GH  Cooling of Pure Water at Room Temperature by Weak Electric Currents. J Phys. Chem B 2018 122 (31), 7711-7717  DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b12689.
Vo, T, and Pollack, GH   Surprising attraction of non-magnetic materials to magnets.  J. Adv. Physics 14 (2), 2018  DOI: 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7368.

Stahlberg, R, Yoo, H. and Pollack GH: Origin of the infra-red emission peak in freezing water. In. J. Physics,, 2018.

Pollack, GH. The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life, and Health. in Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering. ed. Artmann, GM, Artmann, A., Zhubanova, AA, Digel, I. Springer 2018 pp 309-320.

Hwang, SG, Hong, JK, Sharma, A, Pollack, GH and Bahng GW: Exclusion zone and heterogeneous water structure at ambient temperature. PLoS ONE 13(4): e0195057.  2018.


Schwartz, AJ and Pollack, GH: Ice-melting dynamics: The role of protons and interfacial geometry. Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00317, 2017.


Sharma, A, Toso, DT, Kung, K., Bahng, GW, Pollack GH: QELBY-induced Enhancement of Exclusion Zone Buildup and Seed Germination. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Article ID 2410794,, 2017.


S.A. Skopinov, SA, Bodrova MV, Jablon MPR, Pollack, GH, Blyakhman, FA "Exclusion zone" formation in mixtures of ethanol and water. Solution Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/s10953-017-0591-1, 2017.


Kundacina N, Shi M, Pollack GH: Effect of Local and General Anesthetics on Interfacial Water, PLOS, 2016. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0152127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152127.


Burgo, T, Galembeck, F, Pollack, GH: Where is water on the triboelectric series? J. Electrostatics, 30-33,2016 doi: 0.1016/ j.elstat.2016.01.002.


Kimura, K. and Pollack, GH: Particle displacement in aqueous suspension arising from incident radiant energy. Langmuir, 2015, 31 (38), pp 10370–10376 DOI: 10.1021/la5048535.


Ypma, R and Pollack, GH: Effect of hyperbaric oxygen conditions on the ordering of interfacial water. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine 42(3): 257-264, 2015.


Kung, K and Pollack GH: Effect of Atmospheric Ions on Interfacial Water. Entropy 2014, 16, 6033-6041; doi:10.3390/e16116033.


Pollack, GH: Cell electrical properties: reconsidering the origin of the electrical potential. 2014 Cell Biology International ISSN 1065-6995 doi: 10.1002/cbin.10382.


Sulbaran, B,Toriz, G, Allan, GG, Pollack, GH and Delgado E: The dynamic development of exclusion zones on cellulosic surfaces. Cellulose 2014 DOI 10.1007/s10570-014-0165-y.


Po Yoo, H., Nagornyak, E, Das, R., Wexler, AD, Pollack, GH: Contraction-induced changes of muscle hydration water. 2014: J. Phys. Chem. Letters. | J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 947−952.


Rohani M and Pollack GH: Flow through horizontal tubes submerged in water in the absence of a pressure gradient: Mechanistic considerations. Langmuir 2013 29(22):6556-61. doi: 10.1021/la4001945.


Yu, A, Carlson P, and Pollack GH: Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implication for energetics of water. Eur. Physical J. Special Topics 2013 DOI 10.1140/epjst/e2013-01837-8.


Das R and Pollack GH: Charge-based forces at the Nafion-water interface. Langmuir 29(8):2651-8 (2013) PMID 23311934.


Chai B, Mahtani AG and Pollack GH: Influence of electrical connection between metal electrodes on contiguous solute-free zones. Contemporary Materials IV-I – 1-8, 2013.


Pollack, GH: Comment on “A Theory of Macromolecular Chemotaxis” and “Phenomena Associated with Gel–Water Interfaces. Analyses and Alternatives to the Long-Range Ordered Water Hypothesis”, 2013.


Chai B, Mahtani AG and Pollack GH: Unexpected Presence of Solute-Free Zones at Metal-Water Interfaces. Contemporary Materials, III-I, 1-12, 2012.


Musumeci F and Pollack GH: Influence of water on the work function of certain metals. Chem Phys Lett. 536: 65-67. 2012.


So E, Stahlberg R, and Pollack GH: Exclusion zone as an intermediate between ice and water. in: Water and Society, ed. DW Pepper and CA Brebbia, WIT Press, pp 3-11, 2012.


Trevors, JT and Pollack GH Origin of microbial life hypothesis: A gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics. Biochimie, Volume 94 (1), 258 – 262, 2012.


Ienna, F, Yoo, H. and Pollack GH: Spatially Resolved Evaporative Patterns from Water Soft Matter, 8 (47), 11850 – 11856, 2012.


O’Rourke, C, Klyuzhin, IS, Park, JS and Pollack, GH: Unexpected water flow through Nafion-tube punctures. Phys. Rev. E. 83(5) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.83.056305, 2011.


Figueroa, X and Pollack, GH, Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces. In press, Design and Nature, 2011.


Shklyar, TF, Toropova, OA, Safronov, AP, Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, FA: Mechanical Characteristics of Synthetic Polyelectrolyte Gel as a Physical Model of the Cytoskeleton. Biophysics, 56(1) 68-73, 2011.


Nhan, DT and Pollack, GH: Effect of particle diameter on exclusion-zone size. In press Int’l J Design Nature, 2011.


Bhalerao, A and Pollack, GH: Light-induced effects on Brownian displacements. J Biophotnics 4(3) 172-177, 2011.


Safronov, AP, Shakhnovich, M, Kalganov, A, Kamalov, IA, Shklyar, TF, Blyakhman, FA and Pollack, GH: DC electric fields produce periodic bending of polyelectrolyte gels. Polymer 52: 2430-2436, 2011.


Pollack, GH, Figueroa, X, Zhao, Q: The Minimal Cell and Life’s Origin: Role of Water and Aqueous Interfaces. In: P.L. Luisi and P. Stano (eds.), The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-9944-0_7, Springer, 2011.


Yoo, H, Paranji, R and Pollack, GH: Impact of hydrophilic surfaces on interfacial water dynamics probed with NMR spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem Letters 2: 532- 536, 2011.


Yoo, H, Baker, DR, Pirie, CM, Hovakeemian, B and Pollack GH: Characteristics of water adjacent to hydrophilic interfaces. IN: Water: the Forgotten Molecule, ed. Denis LeBihan and Hidenao Fukuyama, Pan Stanford, pp 123 -136, 2011.


Klyuzhin, IS, Ienna, F, Roeder B, Wexler, A and Pollack GH: Persisting Water Droplets on Water Surfaces. J. Phys Chem B 114:14020-14027, 2010.


Shklyar, TF, Safronov,AP, Toropova, OA, Pollack GH and Blyakhman, FA: Mechanoelectric Potentials in Synthetic Hydrogels: Possible Relation to Cytoskeleton. Biophysics, Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 931–936, 2010.


Pollack, GH: Scientific orthodoxies: Moving challenge toward revolution. In: Proc First Int’l CHESS Conf. ed: C Rangacharyulu and E Haven, World Sci. pp. 297-305, 2010.


Zhao Q, Coult J and Pollack GH: Long-range attraction in aqueous colloidal suspension. Proc SPIE 7376: 73716C1-C13, 2010.


Pollack, GH: Water, Energy and Life: Fresh Views from the Water’s Edge. Int’l J. Design & Nature, 5(1): 27-29, 2010.


Chai, B, Pollack GH: Solute-free Interfacial Zones in Polar Liquids. J Phys. Chem B 114: 5371-5375, 2010.


Chai, B, Yoo, H. and Pollack, GH: Effect of Radiant Energy on Near-Surface Water. J. Phys. Chem B 113: 13953-13958, 2009.


Nagornyak, E, Yoo, H and Pollack, GH: Mechanism of attraction between like-charged particles in queous solution. Soft Matter, 5, 3850 – 3857, 2009.


Zhao, Q, Ovchinnikova, K, Chai, B., Yoo, H, Magula, J and Pollack, GH. Role of proton gradients in the echanism of osmosis. J. Phys Chem B 113: 10708-10714, 2009.


Safronov, AP, Blyakhman F.A., Shklyar T.F.. Terziyan T.V., Kostareva M.A.,Tchikunov S.A., Pollack G.H. The influence of counterion type and temperature on Flory-Haggins binary interaction parameter, its enthalpy and entropy parts in poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogels polyelectrolyte J. Macromol Chem Phys, 210(7), 511-519. 2009.


Pollack, GH, Figueroa, X and Zhao, Q: Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life. Int’l J. Mol Sci 10: 1419 – 1429, 2009.


Ovchinnikova, K, Pollack GH: Cylindrical phase separation in colloidal suspensions. Phys. Rev. E 79 (3)036117 2009.


Zheng, J.-M., Wexler, A, Pollack, GH: Effect of buffers on aqueous solute-exclusion zones around ion exchange resins. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332: 511-514, 2009.


Pollack, GH: Water and Surfaces: A Linkage Unexpectedly Profound. In: Hydrogels: Biological Properties and Applications. Springer-Verlat, Milan, 2009, Ed: R. Barbucci, pp 145 – 147.


Shklyar, TF, Safronov, A, Klyuzhin, IS, Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, FA: Relationship between mechanical and electrical properties of a synthetic hydrogel chosen as experimental model of the cytoskeleton. Biofizika, 53(6): 1000-1007, 2008.


Ovchinnikova, K and Pollack, GH: Can water store charge? Langmuir, 25: 542-547, 2009.


Klyuzhin, I, Symonds, A, Magula, J and Pollack, GH: A new method of water purification based on the particle exclusion phenomenon. Environ. Sci and Techn, 42(16) 6160-6166, 2008.


Wang, C, Nagornyak, E, Das, R and Pollack GH: Automatic step detection algorithm for analysis of sarcomere dynamics. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 11(6):609-614, 2008.


Pollack, GH and Clegg, J: Unsuspected Linkage Between Unstirred Layers, Exclusion Zones, and Water. In: Pollack, G.H. and Chin, W.-C. Phase Transitions in Cell Biology, Springer, pp 143 – 152, 2008.


Chai, B, Zheng, JM, Zhao, Q, and Pollack, GH: Spectroscopic studies of solutes in aqueous solution. J. Phys. Chem.,A 112 2242-2247, 2008.


Zhao, Q, Zheng, JM, Chai, B., and Pollack, GH: Unexpected effect of light on colloid crystal Spacing. Langmuir, 24: 1750-1755, 2008.


Klimov, A and Pollack, GH: Visualization of charge-carrier propagation in water. Langmuir 23(23): 11890-11895, 2007.


Pollack, G. H. Cells, Gels and Mechanics. In: Models of Cytoskeletal Mechanics, ed. M. Kaazempur-Mofrad and R. D. Kamm. Cambridge University Press., 2006, pp 129 – 151.


Hao, Y., , Miller, M. S., Swank, D. M., Liu, H., Bernstein, S. I., Maughan, D. L., and Pollack, G. H. Passive stiffness in Drosophila indirect flight muscle reduced by disrupting paramyosin phosphorylation but not by embryonic myosin S2 hinge substitution. Biophys. J. 91: 4500-4506, 2006.


Zheng, J.-M., Chin, W. –C, Khijniak, E., Khijniak, E., Jr., Pollack, G. H. Surfaces and Interfacial Water: Evidence that hydrophilic surfaces have long-range impact. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 127: 19-27, 2006.


Safronov, A. P., Shklyar, T. F., Borodin, V. S., Smirnova, Ye A., Sokolov, S. Yu., Pollack, G. H. and Blyakhman, F. A. Donnan potential in hydrogels of poly(methacrylic acid) and its potassium salt. in Water and the Cell, ed. GH Pollack, IL Cameron, and DN Wheatley, Springer, 2006, pp 273 – 284.


Zheng, J.-M. and Pollack, G. H. Solute Exclusion and potential distribution near hydrophilic surfaces. In: Water and the Cell, ed. GH Pollack, IL Cameron, and DN Wheatley, Springer, 2006, pp. 165 – 174.


Nagornyak, E. M, and Pollack, G. H. Connecting filament mechanics in the relaxed sarcomere. J. Mus Res Cell Motil 26: 303-306, 2005.


Nagornyak, E. M., Blyakhman, F. A. and Pollack, G. H. Stepwise length changes in single invertebrate thick filaments. Biophys J. 89: 3269-3276, 2005.


Pollack, G. H. Revitalizing science in a risk-averse culture: Reflections on the syndrome and prescriptions for its cure. Cellular and Mol. Biol. 51: 815-820, 2005.


Pollack, G. H.: Cells, Gels and Electrochemistry. In Nanoscale Devices, Materials, and Biological Systems, Electrochemical Society, pp. 495-508, Editors: M. Cahay, M. Urquidi-Macdonald, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Guo, H. Hasegawa, N. Koshida, J.P. Leburton, D.J. Lockwood, S. Seal, and A. Stella, 2005.


Pollack, G. H., Blyakhman, F. A., Liu, X., Nagornyak, E.: Sarcomere dynamics, stepwise shortening, and the nature of contraction. In: Sliding Filament Mechanism after 50 Years, ed. H. Sugi., Plenum, 113-126, 2005.


Trevors, J. T. and Pollack, G. H.: The origin of life in a hydrogel environment. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 89 (1) 1-8, 2005.


Pollack, G.H.: Cells and Gels: Implications for Mechanics. SPIE 5852 . Exp. Mechanics. Ed. C. Quan et al., 10-13, 2005.


Nagornyak, E. M., Blyakhman F. A. and Pollack, G. H.: Step size in activated rabbit sarcomeres is independent of filament overlap. J. Mechanics in Med. And Biol 4(4) 1-14, 2004.


Zubarev, A. Yu. Blyakhman, F. A., Pollack, G. H., Gusev, P. and Safronov, A. P. Self-similar wave of swelling/collapse phase transition along polyelectrolyte gel. Macromo. Theory Simul. 13: 697-701, 2004.


Hao, Y. Bernstein, S. I. And Pollack, G. H. Passive stiffness of Drosophilia IFM myofibrils: a novel high accuracy measurement method. J. Mus Rs Cell Motil 25 359-366, 2004.


Safronov, A. P. Smirnova, Y. A., Pollack, G. H. and Blyakhman, F. A. Enthalpy of Swelling of Potassium Poly(acrylate) and Poly(methacrylate) Hydrogels.Evaluation of Excluded-Volume Interaction. Macromol. Chem Phys 205: 1431-1438, 2004.


Nagornyak, E., Blyakhman, F. and Pollack, G.H.: Effect of sarcomere length on step size in relaxed psoas muscle. J. Mus. Res. Cell Motil. 25: 37-43, 2004.


Liu, X. and Pollack, G. H.: Stepwise sliding of single actin and myosin filaments. Biophys. J. 86: 353-358, 2004.


Reitz, F.B. and Pollack, G.H.: Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations. Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed: 70(1): 61-69, 2003.


Zheng, J.M. and Pollack, G. H.: Long range forces extending from polymer surfaces. Phys Rev E.: 68: 031408, 2003.


Pollack, G. H., Liu, X., Yakovenko, O. and Blyahhman, F. A.. Translation step size measured in single sarcomeres and single filament pairs. In: “Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction. Ed. H. Sugi. Kluwer/Plenum 2003, pp 129-142.


Rassier, D.E., Herzog, W., Pollack, G.H.: Dynamics of individual sarcomeres during and after stretch in activated myofibrils. Proc. Royal Soc. (Lond) 270: 1735-1740, 2003.


Pollack, G.H.: Sub-cellular basis of biological motion. Biological Membranes 20(1): 5-15, 2003.


Sokolov, S., Grinko, A., Tourovskaia, A., Reitz, F., Yakovenko, O., Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, F. “Minimum average risk” as a new peak detection algorithm applied to myofibrillar dynamics. Comput. Meth and Prog. in Biomed. 72(1): 21-26, 2003.


Pollack, GH: The role of aqueous interfaces in the cell. Inivited review. Adv. Colloid and Interface Sci.103/2: 173 – 196, 2003.


Gao, F., Reitz, F. and Pollack GH: Potentials in anionic polyelectrolyte hydrogels, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 89(5)1319-1321, 2003.


Liu, X and Pollack GH: Mechanics of F-actin Characterized using Nanofabricated Cantilevers. Biophys. J.83: 2705-2715, 2002.


Pollack, GH: The Cell as a Biomaterial. Invited Review. J. Mat. Sci: Mat. In Medicine 13: 811-821, 2002.


Yakovenko, O., Blyakhman, F. and Pollack, G. H. Fundamental step size in single cardiac and skeletal sarcomeres. Am J. Physiol (Cell) 283(9): C735-C743, 2002.


Dunaway, D.,, Fauver, M. and Pollack, GH: Direct measurement of single synthetic vertebrate thick filament elasticity using nanofabricated cantilevers. Biophys. J. 82(6)L 3128-3133, 2002.


Reitz, F., Fauver, M,. and Pollack, GH: Fluorescence anisotyropy near-field scanning optical microscopy (FANSOM): a new technique for nanoscale microviscometry. Ultramicroscopy, 90: 259-264, 2002.


Pollack, GH amd Reitz, F. Micro-and nano-scale motion in the cell. in: Int’l iMEMS Wkshp., ed. F. Tay Eng Hock, pp. 114, 2001.


Pollack, GH: Is the cell a gel—and why does it matter? Invited review, Japanese Journal of Physiology. 51(6):649-60, 2001.


Blyakhman, T., Tourovskaya, A., and Pollack, G. H.: Quantal sarcomere length changes in relaxed single myofibrils. Biophys J 81:1093-1100, 2001.


Pollack, G. H. and Reitz, F. B.: Phase Transitions and Molecular Motion in the Cell. In Cell Water, ed. P. Mentre. Cellular and Molecular Biol. 47(5): 885-900, 2001.


Pollack, G. H.: MEMS and the cell: How nature creates microscale motion. In: Smart Sensors and Devices, eds. D. Sood, R Lawes and V. Varadan, SPIE Vol. 4235, pp. 21-40, 2001.


Pollack, G. H.: Muscle contraction and polymer gel phase transitions. In Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, Ed. Y. Bar-Cohen, SPIE 3987, pp. 232-242, 2000.


Blyakhman, F., Tourovskaya, A. and Pollack G. H.: Intact connecting filaments change length in 2.3-nm quanta. pp 305-318 In: Elastic Filaments of the Cell. Ed: H. Granzier and G. H. Pollack, Kluwer, 2000.

bottom of page